Jul 25, 2010

France and India: The Beautiful Farms are all but dying


Little light at the end of the tunnelBertranine says her decision to move beyond crops and livestock came with the gritty realization that agriculture had become a buyers' market dominated by wholesalers whose sole objective was to crunch prices -- Time photo

The cover story of the latest issue of the Time magazine "The French Farms: Beautiful but in Danger" had a blurb which says it all: Hit by a shrinking agricultural sector, falling prices and diminishing European Union aid, French farms have learned to adapt -- or die." The more I gleaned through the pages of the cover story, the more I realise how true it is for agriculture in India or for that matter in other parts of the world. 

The scale and size of farming may differ but agriculture across the globe is shrinking, and farmers are being pushed out of farming.

Several years back, one of the stalwarts of Indian agriculture, the late Dr M S Randhawa, had told me: "The real culture of Punjab, is agriculture." Why am I telling you about Punjab is because it is the food bowl of India, with a lot of creative writing centering around the romance of agriculture. That romance has certainly disappeared over the years, and today Punjab agriculture is on a death-bed. So when the Time article states: "La France profonde, an almost untranslatable term, conjures up the idea that the "real" France is rural France," I can understand what it portrays to convey.

The beautiful farms of Punjab are also dying.

As the article says: "FranÇois Purseigle, an expert in rural sociology and an agriculture professor at the National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse, says that fully half of France's active population worked in agriculture at the turn of the 20th century. But the sector has shed 4 million jobs in the past 40 years, and now accounts for less than 3% of the national workforce. Purseigle says the number of farms in France has plunged from 2 million in 1960 to around 657,000 now, and only 346,500 of those are classified as professional operations under cultivation."

This is true for India too. Over the years agriculture has been shrinking. Its share in country's GDP has also been on a steep decline. Roughly 57 per cent workforce is still engaged in farming as per official estimates, down from 70 per cent some four decades back. There are still 600 million people directly engaged in agriculture, and the mainline economic thinking is to cut it drastically. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh feels that India needs to offload about 70 per cent of the workforce engaged in agriculture.

What is happening in France is also happening in India, and in fact in a much more worrisome way. The continuing apathy and neglect of agriculture has led to a massive increase in farmer suicides (which I find is a tragedy that also confronts rural France) and the marginalisation of the farming communities. Following the World Bank prescription of land rentals, India is on a fast forward approach to acquire farm lands for industry and real estate.

A third of India is faced with an unprecedented social unrest, a direct outcome of the destruction of agriculture and forestry, which I strongly feel is the first line of defence against Maoism. And yet, economic policies are aimed at reducing the dependence on agriculture, and shifting the focus to industry, manufacturing and services. Those who will stay back in agriculture will conform to 'an industrial mind-set to agriculture by relying on massive production, using dwindling numbers of farmers to cultivate multiple holdings that were abandoned by retiring neighbors, and raising crops for wholesalers who supply food-processing companies.'

So for many, as the authors say, 'the choice is now a stark one: find some new way to make ends meet, or risk being a victim to a farm sector that's predicted to shrink.'

I recall former Agricultural Commissioner and Vice-Chancellor Dr D R Bhumbla used to say that although everyone says that life in rural areas is healthy and uncontaminated, but no one actually wants to migrate to the countryside. "Even my grandchildren do not want to visit me during their summer holidays. They expect me to join them in the city instead. One reason is that at least for 12 hours a day, they have to do without electricity on my farm, which is intolerable for those who have got used to this luxury or necessity as you deem it fit." I was reminded of what Dr Bhumbla used to say when I read in the Time article: "A vacation in the country "is something that appeals to people with memories of childhood summers spent on their grandparents' farm, or who want their children to see what farms are like," says Marie-ThÉrÈse Lacroix. But as a business, she continues, it is "too small to turn back the trends we've seen in recent decades. No one wants to inherit family farms because it's too much work for too little money, and that's emptying the countryside."  

There are so many parallels that one can draw from the analysis, but one thing is crystal clear -- there is a deliberate effort to kill agriculture. Globalisation is designed primarily to push farmers out of farming, and to replace food farming with the concept of 'farm to fork' kind of agribusiness. The fundamental fault lies with the way economists compute the gross domestic product (GDP). It does not factor in the cost and benefit of the prevailing farming systems, the food cultures, and the cost of protection and preservation of the environment by farmers who tend the farms.

For any progressive society, the erosion of the farms should come as a loud warning. We are fast moving towards a future where the romance of food is all set to disappear. Food choices are becoming increasingly narrow, and the entire food chain -- right from the farm to the fork -- is coming under the yoke of agribusiness. This is a frightful future, and I fail to understand why our political leaders remain blind to the food disaster that awaits the world.

Probably this is because people have become indifferent to the food crisis. As long as they can stuff themselves with cheaper food products nicely packed and wrapped, they believe all is well. This is what the food industry has managed to convince the masses with. Again, as I said earlier, it is linked to GDP growth. The more the harmful processed foods you eat, the more is the sale of pharmaceuticals; and the more is the sale of medicines and hospital treatments, the more is the need for insurance cover. No wonder, the insurance industry has pumped in $ 2 billion in food stocks. 

We are becoming a victim of GDP.

Meanwhile, here is the Time article: 

How to Save Rural France

By BRUCE CRUMLEY / SAINT-MARTIN-D'ARBEROUE 

Surrounded by a deep blue sky and the green-fleeced slopes of rolling Basque-country hills, Bernadette Pochelu winds her way between an outdoor pen of pigs, a noisy barn full of lambs, and her zigzagging dog, whose barks announce each change of its mistress's direction. She strolls through a milking hangar and cheesemaking area, and finally the shop where she and husband Jean-Claude sell specialty Basque cheeses, sausages and ham to the around 10,000 people who visit their Agerria farm each year. Many who go for a free tour of the homestead in Saint-Martin-d'Arberoue, about 40 km west of Bayonne, wind up taking armfuls of its products home - or bedding down in one of the five B&B rooms the Pochelus operate. Their workdays stretch from 6:30 a.m. until after 8 p.m., with only a 20-minute break for lunch and the odd moment between chores to contemplate the single week of vacation they get away for each year. "Still, I wouldn't trade this for anything," Bernadette Pochelu says.

What the Pochelus have at Agerria is an example of how many of France's smallholding farmers are adapting to secure their futures. It involves finding a way out of a tightening trap of falling prices that markets are willing to pay for produce, together with plans to reduce aid and decouple it from production criteria when the European Union's current $1.1 trillion Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) expires in 2013. That challenge is especially critical for French farmers, who currently receive nearly 20% of CAP funding - a total package worth about $54 billion this year alone. E.U. criteria linking subsidies to greener, sustainable farming practices and wider rural development rather than traditional production volumes will expand considerably, placing additional pressure on France, whose $82 billion agricultural sector is by far the largest in Europe. While no one expects that financial support to go away, it's already clear its enormous costs to the E.U. - which spends around 45% of its entire budget on agriculture - will force farmers to look for new ways of doing business, and with less aid.

Both farm productivity and competition have surged in the past two decades, while the wholesaling and food-processing businesses in European agriculture have undergone significant consolidation. Globalization means that food companies can shop around, so fewer farmers can find industrial buyers willing to pay them as much as it costs to produce fruit, vegetables, milk and meat. Some French farmers prefer to give their produce away - or dump it in protest. For many, the choice is now a stark one: find some new way to make ends meet, or risk being a victim to a farm sector that's predicted to shrink. 

All of this is part of a wider evolution that has brought profound changes to rural France. The land - fruitful, fertile and able to deliver the highest-quality products to consumers - has been an important part of modern France's mental makeup, and has assumed a central role over decades of French economic development as other E.U. neighbors focused on industry. La France profonde, an almost untranslatable term, conjures up the idea that the "real" France is rural France, found in the landscape that shifts constantly from plain to mountain and back again, and which produces here a cuisine based on butter, but just over there, one that relies on oil. It's not just the French who think there's something magical about it all; at a time of the year when TV viewers around the world are watching the Tour de France wind its way through the countryside, the sense that there is something special about rural France is one that has long been held far beyond the Hexagon.

But rural France has been changing for years. FranÇois Purseigle, an expert in rural sociology and an agriculture professor at the National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse, says that fully half of France's active population worked in agriculture at the turn of the 20th century. But the sector has shed 4 million jobs in the past 40 years, and now accounts for less than 3% of the national workforce. Purseigle says the number of farms in France has plunged from 2 million in 1960 to around 657,000 now, and only 346,500 of those are classified as professional operations under cultivation. With fewer children stepping up to take over from retiring parents, the total number of farms is set to drop further to 320,000 by 2020. Many of those, meanwhile, will bear no resemblance to the family-run farms of yore, but instead take the form of the megaoperations dominating grain production in the Ile-de-France region - historically the nation's breadbasket. Those have brought an industrial mind-set to agriculture by relying on massive production, using dwindling numbers of farmers to cultivate multiple holdings that were abandoned by retiring neighbors, and raising crops for wholesalers who supply food-processing companies.

"As recently as 20 or 30 years ago, there were 120 smallholding farmers in our village compared to two or three now - and they all cultivate areas covering four or five older farms just to survive," says Joseph Lacroix, 80, who along with wife Marie-ThÉrÈse worked their corn and kiwi farm 160 km south of Bordeaux before retiring and handing it over to their son in 1992. Before they did, they transformed buildings on the farm into two studios and a guest room to rent to tourists to fill revenue shortfalls, and they continue running the operation to augment their pension. A vacation in the country "is something that appeals to people with memories of childhood summers spent on their grandparents' farm, or who want their children to see what farms are like," says Marie-ThÉrÈse Lacroix. But as a business, she continues, it is "too small to turn back the trends we've seen in recent decades. No one wants to inherit family farms because it's too much work for too little money, and that's emptying the countryside."

It's tempting to explain the change as a consequence of globalization - and its impact on the relatively high costs of agricultural production in France. Though the amount of French land cultivated has steadily reduced over time to 32 million hectares, French farmers have adapted and modernized to increase volumes, cut costs, and boost efficiency. In 1970, the work of each French farmer fed 15 people; now it feeds 60. But however French farmers have improved their efficiency, wholesalers and food processors now can access even cheaper alternatives - wheat from Ukraine, strawberries from Morocco.

Read the full article at:
http://news.yahoo.com/s/time/20100723/wl_time/09171200577700

2 comments:

Deena said...

Every child, woman and man deserves to get the basic nutrition their body requires. It’s us who can make sure they are not deprived.

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Anonymous said...

Death of a Farm
By VERLYN KLINKENBORG
Published: July 31, 2010
New York Times

Farms go out of business for many reasons, but few farms do merely because the soil has failed. That is the miracle of farming. If you care for the soil, it will last — and yield — nearly forever. America is such a young country that we have barely tested that. For most of our history, there has been new land to farm, and we still farm as though there always will be.
Still, there are some very old farms out there. The oldest is the Tuttle farm, near Dover, N.H., which is also one of the oldest business enterprises in America. It made the news last week because its owner — a lineal descendant of John Tuttle, the original settler — has decided to go out of business. It was founded in 1632. I hear its sweet corn is legendary.
The year 1632 is unimaginably distant. In 1632, Galileo was still publishing, and John Locke was born. There were perhaps 10,000 colonists in all of America, only a few hundred of them in New Hampshire. The Tuttle acres, then, would have seemed almost as surrounded as they do in 2010, but by forest instead of highways and houses.
It was a precarious operation at the start — as all farming was in the new colonies—and it became precarious enough again in these past few years to peter out at last. The land is protected by a conservation easement so it can’t be developed, but no one knows whether the next owner will farm it.
In a letter on their Web site, the Tuttles cite “exhaustion of resources” as the reason to sell the farm. The exhausted resources they list include bodies, minds, hearts, imagination, equipment, machinery and finances. They do not mention soil, which has been renewed and redeemed repeatedly. It’s as though the parishioners of the First Parish Church in nearby Dover — erected nearly 200 years later, in 1829 — had rebuilt the structure on the same spot every few years.
It is too simple to say, as the Tuttles have, that the recession killed a farm that had survived for nearly 400 years. What killed it was the economic structure of food production. Each year it has become harder for family farms to compete with industrial scale agriculture — heavily subsidized by the government — underselling them at every turn. In a system committed to the health of farms and their integration with local communities, the result would have been different. In 1632, and for many years after, the Tuttle farm was a necessity. In 2010, it is suddenly superfluous, or so we like to pretend.


Mike Callicrate
Ranch Foods Direct
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Colorado Springs, CO 80907
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